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Silver rush

A silver rush is the silver-mining equivalent of a gold rush, where the discovery of silver-bearing ore sparks a mass migration of individuals seeking wealth in the new mining region. Notable silver rushes have taken place in Mexico, Argentina, t ...

Wage reform in China, 1949–1976

After the Chinese Communist Party extended its ruling to most parts of China and set up a national government in Beijing in 1949, it encountered a lot of new tasks. The first was to rebuild the economy, which deteriorated sharply during the last ...

Economic history of the world

The economic history of the world is a record of the economic activities of all humans, spanning both recorded history and evidenced prehistory.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. Infrastructure is composed of public and private physical improvements s ...

Public infrastructure

Public infrastructure is infrastructure owned or available for use by the public. It is distinguishable from generic or private infrastructure in terms of policy, financing, purpose, etc. Public infrastructure is a general term often qualified sp ...

Public works

Public works are a broad category of infrastructure projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community. They include public buildings, transport infrastructure, ...

Asset Management Plan

An asset management plan is a tactical plan for managing an organisations infrastructure and other assets to deliver an agreed standard of service. Typically, an asset management plan will cover more than a single asset, taking a system approach ...

Bentley Infrastructure 500

Bentley Infrastructure 500 is a ranking of infrastructure owners compiled by the CAD software company Bentley Systems. It was first published in 2010. The index ranks the combined infrastructure assets in the hands of the biggest public and priva ...

Critical Foreign Dependencies Initiative

The Critical Foreign Dependencies Initiative is a strategy and list, maintained by the United States Department of Homeland Security, of foreign infrastructure which "if attacked or destroyed would critically impact the U.S." A copy of the 2008 l ...

Critical infrastructure

Critical infrastructure in the UK) is a term used by governments to describe assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy – the infrastructure. Most commonly associated with the term are facilities for: Water supply); Re ...

Critical infrastructure protection

Critical infrastructure protection is a concept that relates to the preparedness and response to serious incidents that involve the critical infrastructure of a region or nation. The American Presidential directive PDD-63 of May 1998 set up a nat ...

Cyber Resilience Review

The Cyber Resilience Review is an assessment method developed by the United States Department of Homeland Security. It is a voluntary examination of operational resilience and cyber security practices offered at no cost by DHS to the operators of ...

Detention basin

A detention basin or retarding basin is an excavated area installed on, or adjacent to, tributaries of rivers, streams, lakes or bays to protect against flooding and, in some cases, downstream erosion by storing water for a limited period of time ...

ELV System for Buildings

ELV System for Buildings stands for Mechanical and Electrical extra-low voltage System deployed in residential and commercial buildings for the purposes of better control and security. Usually it comprises a variety of sub-systems like: Tour Guar ...

European Commission Investment Plan for Europe

The European Commission’s Investment Plan for Europe known as the" Juncker Plan ” or the" EU Infrastructure Investment Plan ” is an ambitious infrastructure investment programme first announced by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker ...

European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection

The European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection refers to the doctrine and programmes created to identify and protect critical infrastructure that, in case of fault, incident or attack, could seriously impact both the country where ...

Flow control structure

A flow control structure is a device that alters the flow of water in a stream, drainage channel or pipe. As a group these are passive structures since they operate without intervention under different amounts of water flow and their impact chang ...

Gas lighting

Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas. The light is produced either directly by the flame, generally by u ...

Hard infrastructure

Hard infrastructure is the physical infrastructure of roads, bridges etc., as opposed to the soft infrastructure of human capital and the institutions that cultivate infrastructure. This article delineates both the fixed assets, and the control s ...

Hasankeyf

Hasankeyf was an ancient town and district located along the Tigris River in the Batman Province in southeastern Turkey. It was declared a natural conservation area by Turkey in 1981. Despite local and international objections, the city and its a ...

High-voltage transformer fire barriers

High-voltage transformer fire barriers, or transformer firewalls, transformer ballistic firewalls, transformer blast walls, are outdoor countermeasures against cascading failures in a national electric grid. The purpose of these barriers, like co ...

Infiltration basin

An infiltration basin, is a type of device that is used to manage stormwater runoff, prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay. It is essentially a shallow artificial pond that is ...

Infrastructure asset management

Infrastructure asset management is the integrated, multidisciplinary set of strategies in sustaining public infrastructure assets such as water treatment facilities, sewer lines, roads, utility grids, bridges, and railways. Generally, the process ...

Infrastructure bias

In economics and social policy, infrastructure bias is the influence of the location and availability of pre-existing infrastructure, such as roads and telecommunications facilities, on social and economic development. In science, infrastructure ...

Infrastructure policy of Donald Trump

The infrastructure policy of Donald Trump is one of the priorities of his administration. He considers the modernization of American infrastructure as an extension of his career as a real estate developer and a concrete item to add to his legacy ...

Infrastructure security

Infrastructure security is the security provided to protect infrastructure, especially critical infrastructure, such as airports, highways rail transport, hospitals, bridges, transport hubs, network communications, media, the electricity grid, da ...

Infrastructure-based development

Infrastructure-based economic development, also called infrastructure-driven development, combines key policy characteristics inherited from the Rooseveltian progressivist tradition and Neo-Keynesian economics in the United States, Frances Gaulli ...

John Laing Group

John Laing Group plc is a British investor, developer and operator of privately financed, public sector infrastructure projects such as roads, railways, hospitals and schools through Public-Private Partnership and Private Finance Initiative arran ...

Linear infrastructure intrusions

Linear infrastructure intrusions into natural ecosystems are man-made linear infrastructure such as roads and highways, electric power lines, railway lines, canals, pipelines, firebreaks, and fences. These intrusions cause linear opening through ...

Megaprojects and Risk

Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition is a 2003 book by Bent Flyvbjerg, Nils Bruzelius, and Werner Rothengatter, published by Cambridge University Press. According to chief economist and director of transportation policy at Infrastructure ...

NIST Cybersecurity Framework

The NIST Cybersecurity Framework provides a policy framework of computer security guidance for how private sector organizations in the United States can assess and improve their ability to prevent, detect, and respond to cyber attacks. The framew ...

North American Electric Reliability Corporation

The North American Electric Reliability Corporation is a nonprofit corporation based in Atlanta, Georgia, and formed on March 28, 2006, as the successor to the North American Electric Reliability Council. The original NERC was formed on June 1, 1 ...

Retention basin

A retention basin, sometimes called a wet pond, wet detention basin or stormwater management pond, is an artificial pond with vegetation around the perimeter, and includes a permanent pool of water in its design. It is used to manage stormwater r ...

Rock shed

A rock shed is a civil engineering structure used in mountainous areas where rock slides land slides create highway closure problems. A rock shed is built over a roadway that is in the path of the slide. They are equally used to protect railroads ...

Shovel ready

In politics, a shovel ready construction project is where planning and engineering is advanced enough that with sufficient funding, construction can begin within a very short time.

Social access

Social access is a concept of the delivery of public services, facilities and amenities to intended user groups. Limited access may be due to their high cost, the lack of appropriate infrastructure or due to prejudices within the society that res ...

Soft infrastructure

Soft infrastructure is all the services which are required to maintain the economic, health, and cultural and social standards of a population, as opposed to the hard infrastructure is the physical infrastructure of roads, bridges etc. It include ...

Spotswood sewer tunnel

The Spotswood sewer tunnel is a sanitary sewer tunnel in Melbourne, Victoria. It was constructed in 1895 to take sewerage under the Yarra River to the Spotswood Pumping Station, where it was pumped to the Werribee Sewage Farm. The Melbourne and M ...

Standard of service

A Standard of Service is used in Infrastructure Asset Management to define the service that a customer is entitled to receive. Examples could be: bacteriological quality will conform to WHO standards; bursts will be repaired within 12 hours of no ...

Structural robustness

Robustness is the ability of a structure to withstand events like fire, explosions, impact or the consequences of human error, without being damaged to an extent disproportionate to the original cause - as defined in EN 1991-1-7 of the Accidental ...

Sustainable urban infrastructure

Sustainable urban infrastructure expands on the concept of urban infrastructure by adding the sustainability element with the expectation of improved and more sustained urban development. In the construction and physical and organizational struct ...

Terrace (agriculture)

In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping is therefore call ...

Urban air mobility

Urban air mobility refers to urban transportation systems that move people by air. These transportation systems developed in response to traffic congestion.

Lee Badgett

Mary Virginia Lee Badgett is an economist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, best known for her research into economic issues relevant to lesbians, gay men, and their families. Badgett earned a B.A. in economics from the University of Ch ...

Gay Mafia

The Gay Mafia, Velvet Mafia, Gaystapo, gay lobby, Lavender Mafia, Homintern, etc. are pejorative terms for the alleged disproportionate behind-the-scenes influence of gay rights groups and the LGBT community in politics, media, culture, religion, ...

The Glass Closet: Why Coming Out Is Good Business

The Glass Closet: Why Coming Out Is Good Business is a 2014 book by John Browne, the former Chief Executive Officer of BP. It talks about being gay in the workplace. Browne argues that being out increases productivity.

Greater Seattle Business Association

The Greater Seattle Business Association is Washington States LGBTQ & Allied chamber of commerce based in Seattle, Washington. The majority of the organizations membership are small businesses located throughout the Puget Sound area. The associat ...

LGBTQ migration

LGBTQ migration is the movement of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer people around the world and domestically, often to escape discrimination or ill treatment due to their sexuality. Globally, many LGBTQ people attempt to leave discr ...

LGBT marketing

LGBT marketing is the act of marketing to LGBT customers, either with dedicated ads or general ads, or through sponsorships of LGBT organizations and events, or through the targeted use of any other element of the marketing mix. The LGBT market c ...

Pinkwashing (LGBT)

Pinkwashing is a compound word modelled on term whitewash. In the context of LGBT rights, it is used to describe a variety of marketing and political strategies aimed at promoting products, countries, people or entities through an appeal to gay-f ...

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