Burgher arms or bourgeois arms are coats of arms borne by persons of the burgher social class of Europe since the Middle Ages. By definition, however, the term is alien to British heraldry, which follows other rules. In some European countries, certain armorial bearings have traditionally been restricted to a particular social class, e.g. the use of supporters in Great Britain, tinctures in Portugal or coronets in Sweden. Notwithstanding, in most countries except the United Kingdom, any individual, family and community has been free to adopt arms and use it as they please, provided they refrain from wrongfully assume the preexisting arms of another. Of these, although the term burgher arms refers to the bourgeoisie, it is sometimes extended also to arms of peasants. Notably, though, clergy traditonally pertains to ecclesiastical heraldry. Use of coats of arms by burghers and artisans began during the 13th century and in the 14th century some peasants took to using arms. The arms of burghers bore a far wider variety of charges than the arms of nobility like everyday objects, in particular, tools. In burgher arms are met sometimes also house marks which are not met in arms of nobility. Most widespread burgher heraldry was and still is in Switzerland and in the Netherlands. In the Netherlands only a small percentage of the existing arms belong to the nobility. Crest-coronets in burgher arms are correct only if the arms were granted by a sovereign and the coronet is explicitly mentioned in the grant.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the heir of four of Europes leading royal houses. He first inherited the Burgundian Netherlands, which came from his paternal grandmother, Mary of Burgundy. Charles was then the first sole monarch of Spain, inheriting the kingdoms first united by his maternal grandparents, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Finally, on the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, he inherited the Habsburg lands in Austria. His coat of arms, representing much of the land he inherited, is blazoned as follows:
Giedroyc is a Polish surname, originating from the Giedroyc princely family of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Royal coat of arms of Great Britain was the coat of arms representing royal authority in the sovereign state of the Kingdom of Great Britain, in existence from 1707 to 1801. The kingdom came into being on 1 May 1707, with the political union of the kingdom of Scotland and the kingdom of England, which included Wales. With the 1706 Treaty of Union, it was agreed to create a single kingdom, encompassing the whole of the island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, but not Ireland, which remained a separate realm under the newly created British crown. On 1 January 1801, the royal arms of Great Britain were superseded by those of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, when Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland by the Acts of Union of 1800 following the suppression of the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
The coat of arms of the King of Spain is the heraldic symbol representing the monarch of Spain. The current version of the monarchs coat of arms was adopted in 2014 but is of much older origin. The arms marshal the arms of the former monarchs of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Navarre. Traditionally, coats of arms did not belong to a nation but to the monarch who would quarter his shield with territorial claims of his dynasty. Formerly, the Spanish monarchs arms were much more complex than they are today, featuring the arms of the various territories of this dynasty. A simpler version of these arms, known as the lesser arms, was also used; The lesser arms were another set of arms within the centre of the full arms. During the later part of the Bourbon dynasty, this was quarterly Castille and Leon. In 1868, during the provisional government that followed the overthrow of Queen Isabella II, an arms of national character was adopted; This 1868 arms created the present-day arrangement of elements in the shield. The "national arms" and "royal arms" coexisted after the restoration of the monarchy. In 1931, the "national arms" were revised into the royal arms, replacing the former lesser arms of the King i.e. quarterly Castille and Leon. The monarchy was abolished later that year. When don Juan Carlos, grandson of Alfonso XIII the last king of Spain, was chosen to be the successor of General Francisco Franco, the arms adopted for his use in 1971 as Prince of Spain was quarterly Castille, Leon, Aragon, and Navarre. The heraldic achievement also included the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the Cross of Burgundy and the yoke and bundle of arrows formerly used by the Catholic Monarchs, the same arms he would use as King. Upon Felipe VIs ascension to the throne in 2014, the cross, yoke, and arrows were dropped from the royal arms.
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