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Africa Specialty Group

The Africa Specialty Group is one of many specialty groups within the Association of American Geographers. The group is composed of academic geographers with research interests in Africa. This group publishes the African Geographical Review, a peer-reviewed academic journal.

Anton Melik Geographical Institute

The Anton Melik Geographical Institute was founded in 1946 by the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. In 1976 it was named after the Slovene geographer and academy member Anton Melik, who was the first head of the institute. Since 1981, the institute has been a member of the Scientific Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Until 1992 the institute was mainly engaged with researching glaciers, glacial and fluvial transformations of land surfaces, flooded areas, natural disasters, mountain farms, and social geography. Since 1993 the institutes main task has been to conduct geographical studies of Slovenia and its landscapes and to prepare basic geographical texts on Slovenia as a country and as part of the world. Research is mostly directed toward physical, social, and regional geography and thematic cartography.

Berkeley School of Latin Americanist Geography

The Berkeley School of Latin Americanist Geography was founded by the American geographer Carl O. Sauer. Sauer was a professor of geography at the University of California at Berkeley from 1923 until becoming professor emeritus in 1957 and was instrumental in the early development of the geography graduate program at Berkeley and the discipline of geography in the United States. Each generation of this research school has pursued new theoretical and methodological approaches, but their study of the peoples and places of Latin America and the Caribbean has remained the common denominator since the early 20th century. Carl O. Sauer himself did not develop a particular interest in Latin America before 1925, when Oskar Schmieder, a German geographer, disciple of Alfred Hettner, and expert in Latin American regional geography, arrived at Berkeley, coming from Cordoba, Argentina, to work as an associate professor. Obviously, his interest awoke during Schmieders presence between 1925 and 1930. After Schmieders departure in 1930, Carl O. Sauer began to offer seminars on the regional geography of Latin America.

Bureau des Longitudes

The Bureau des Longitudes is a French scientific institution, founded by decree of 25 June 1795 and charged with the improvement of nautical navigation, standardisation of time-keeping, geodesy and astronomical observation. During the 19th century, it was responsible for synchronizing clocks across the world. It was headed during this time by François Arago and Henri Poincare. The Bureau now functions as an academy and still meets monthly to discuss topics related to astronomy. The Bureau was founded by the National Convention after it heard a report drawn up jointly by the Committee of Navy, the Committee of Finances and the Committee of State education. Henri Gregoire had brought to the attention of the National Convention Frances failing maritime power and the naval mastery of England, proposing that improvements in navigation would lay the foundations for a renaissance in naval strength. As a result, the Bureau was established with authority over the Paris Observatory and all other astronomical establishments throughout France. The Bureau was charged with taking control of the seas away from the English and improving accuracy when tracking the longitudes of ships through astronomical observations and reliable clocks. The ten original members of its founding board were: Geometers Pierre-Simon Laplace; Joseph-Louis Lagrange; Pierre Mechain; Astronomers Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre; Joseph Jerome Lefrançais de Lalande; Dominique, comte de Cassini; Noel Simon Caroche, manufacturer of telescopes. Jean-Charles de Borda, who carried out work related to the mechanics of fluids and precursor of Carnot because of his insights on thermodynamics; Louis Antoine de Bougainville, celebrated navigator; and Jean-Nicolas Buache, geographer; By a decree of 30 January 1854, the Bureaus mission was extended to embrace geodesy, time standardisation and astronomical measurements. This decree granted independence to the Paris Observatory, separating it from the Bureau, and focused the efforts of the Bureau on time and astronomy. The Bureau was successful at setting a universal time in Paris via air pulses sent through pneumatic tubes. It later worked to synchronize time across the French colonial empire by determining the length of time for a signal to make a round trip to and from a French colony. The French Bureau of Longitude established a commission in the year 1897 to extend the metric system to the measurement of time. They planned to abolish the antiquated division of the day into hours, minutes, and seconds, and replace it by a division into tenths, thousandths, and hundred-thousandths of a day. This was a revival of a dream that was in the minds of the creators of the metric system at the time of the French Revolution a hundred years earlier. Some members of the Bureau of Longitude commission introduced a compromise proposal, retaining the old-fashioned hour as the basic unit of time and dividing it into hundredths and ten-thousandths. Poincare served as secretary of the commission and took its work very seriously, writing several of its reports. He was a fervent believer in a universal metric system. But he lost the battle. The rest of the world outside France gave no support to the commissions proposals, and the French government was not prepared to go it alone. After three years of hard work, the commission was dissolved in 1900. Since 1970, the board has been constituted with 13 members, 3 nominated by the Academie des Sciences. Since 1998, practical work has been carried out by the Institut de mecanique celeste et de calcul des ephemerides.


The C.E.I.P.P., or the Centre dEtudes sur lile de Paques et la Polynesie on Easter Island and Polynesia") is a geographic and anthropological group created by Andre Valenta and Michel-Alain Jumeau. The CEIPP is notable for its members publications on Easter Island. These include: Les Mysteres Resolus de lile de Paques, a collective work published by Editions Step, Evry, 1993. ISBN 2-9508078-0-1 Michel-Alain Jumeau and Yves Piogers Bibliographie de lile de Paques. Publications de la Societe des Oceanistes, nº46, Musee de lHomme, Paris, 1997. ISBN 2-85430-004-1. Nouveau Regard sur lile de Paques, a collective work published by Moana Editions, Saintry-sur-Seine, 1982 The CEIPP also houses the Thomas Barthel archives of rongorongo, making the data available in digitized format, cross-checking his line drawings of the rongorongo corpus with available photographs and the rubbings he used, and expanding his list of glyphs and his glyph-referencing system.

Center for Urban and Regional Analysis

Center for Urban and Regional Analysis The Center for Urban & Regional Analysis is an interdisciplinary research organization of The Ohio State University. CURAs mission is to serve as a bridge across academia, industry, and the policy sector by providing spatial analysis of economic, social, environmental, and health issues in urban and regional settings in Ohio and beyond. The organization explores various social, political, economic, geographic, economic, and public health issues using Geographic Information Systems and other spatial analysis techniques. CURA also offers a speaker series which brings a wide range of speakers to campus each semester.

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