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AIDS orphan

An AIDS orphan is a child who became an orphan because one or both parents died from AIDS. In statistics from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNAIDS, the World Health Organization WHO and the United Nations Childrens Fund UNICEF, the term is used for a child whose mother has died due to AIDS before the childs 15th birthday, regardless of whether the father is still alive. As a result of this definition, one study estimated that 80% of all AIDS orphans still have one living parent. There are 70.000 new AIDS orphans a year. Because AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active, AIDS-related deaths are often people who are their familys primary wage earners. The resulting AIDS orphans frequently depend on the state for care and financial support, particularly in Africa. The highest number of orphans due to AIDS alive in 2007 was in South Africa although the definition of AIDS orphan in South African statistics includes children up to the age of 18 who have lost either biological parent. In 2005 the highest number of AIDS orphans as a percentage of all orphans was in Zimbabwe.

Child health and nutrition in Africa

Child health and nutrition in Africa is concerned with the health care of children through adolescents in the various countries of Africa. The right to health and a nutritious and sufficient diet are internationally recognized fundamental human rights protected by international treaties and conventions on the right to life, as well as in charters, strategies and declarations. Millennium Development Goals 1, 4, 5 and 6 highlight, respectively, how poverty, hunger, child mortality, maternal health, the eradication of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases are of particular significance in the context of child health. Despite these commitments and ideals, however, the reality is that high mortality among young children, particularly in Africa, continues to be a cause for concern. Children born in developed countries such as Sweden have a less than 1 per cent risk of dying before the age of 1 year, whereas for children born in developing countries, the risk is closer to 10 per cent or higher. Within developing countries, there are significant disparities between rich and poor and urban and rural areas.

Childhood in war

Childhood in war refers to children who have been affected, impaired or even injured during and in the aftermath of armed conflicts. Wars affect all areas of involved persons life, including physical and mental-emotional integrity, social relations with the family and the community, as well as housing. More often than not, these experiences affect a childs further development. The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research estimated that there were 226 politically-motivated armed conflicts of which 38 estimated as highly violent: 18 full-scale wars, 20 limited wars worldwide during 2016. According to a Spiegel TV documentary in early 2016, estimated 230 million children live in war and crisis areas, experiencing everyday terror.

Childism

Childism can refer either to advocacy for empowering children as a subjugated group or to prejudice and/or discrimination against children or childlike qualities. It can operate thus both as a positive term for a movement, like the term feminism, as well as a critical term to identify a phenomenon, like the term racism. The concept is first described and explored in an article by Chester M. Pierce and Gail B. Allen in 1975. The most extensive treatment of childism as a negative phenomenon is Elisabeth Young-Bruehls last work, published posthumously, Childism: Confronting Prejudice Against Children.

Kids club

A kids club, childrens club or mini club is a childcare facility, which includes a fully staffed mini playground or complete village specially designed for children; is usually offered by private companies, health and fitness clubs, major sports events, trade fairs, etc.; and educates and engages children for short periods of time for the whole day depending on how long the parents are needing the care for. Kids are entertained in a playful, dynamic, and stylish environment. Kids clubs offer a wide range of activities such as art, music and dancing, maritime and animal experiences, cookery and nature experiences, language and sports lessons, etc. Often babies and toddlers under the age of 2 require an adult to attend the kids club with them. This can be provided by the kids club in the form of an extra babysitter for a cost or the parents/guardians need to watch them while they play. Family lifestyle, luxury magazines or blogs are specialized on lifestyle and quality time, kids clubs, family friendly venues, travel, luxury. Another definition for kids club is a kind of fan club, created not around a celebrity, but rather around a commercial entity that caters to children or families, or the entitys mascot. Kids clubs serve as a promotional tool for such entities, trading discount coupons, exclusive items, a newsletter and other offerings in exchange for family goodwill and a measure of marketing and demographic information. Memberships in such clubs are usually restricted to children twelve or less years old, and members are typically presented with an assortment of standard fan club items: A welcome letter, a membership card which may double as a discount or premium card at outlets, a club pin or badge, an "autographed photo" of the mascot or spokesperson, a pad of letterheaded notepaper, other possible souvenirs including a catalog or price list of more available items, and occasional mailings, usually to promote special events or members exclusives. Some clubs encourage their members to form chapters and invite friends to join, and may offer a "club kit" with chapter materials and suggestions, sometimes for a fee, or free in exchange for member information. Examples of this type of club include the Big Boy Kids Club, the Sofia Kids Club of Esfahan persian=کلوپ کوچولوها, the Ronald McDonald Club, Burger King Kids Club, the Fox Kids Clubs, the former Sambos Restaurants Tiger Tamers later the Tiger Club, and numerous retail chain clubs.

Juvenile life insurance

Juvenile life insurance is permanent life insurance that insures the life of a child. It is a financial planning tool that provides a tax advantaged savings vehicle with potential for a lifetime of benefits. Juvenile life insurance, or child life insurance, is usually purchased to protect a family against the sudden and unexpected costs of a funeral and burial with much lower face values. Should the juvenile survive to their college years it can then take on the form of a financial planning tool.

Women and children first

Women and children first is a code of conduct dating from 1852, whereby the lives of women and children were to be saved first in a life-threatening situation, typically abandoning ship, when survival resources such as lifeboats were limited. However, it has no basis in maritime law. While the phrase first appeared in the 1860 novel Harrington: A Story of True Love, by William Douglas OConnor, the first documented application of "women and children first" was in May 1840 when, after a lightning-strike, fire broke out aboard the American packet Poland en route from New York to Le Havre. According to a passenger, J.H. Buckingham of Boston: . the captain said that he had little doubt that the ship was on fire, and that we must endeavor to get at it. On a suggestion that we might be obliged to take to the boats, it was immediately remarked by one of our French passengers, and responded to by others – "Let us take care of the women and children first." This led to a precautionary evacuation of women, children and a few male passengers into the longboat, while the other male passengers and crew remained aboard to fight the blaze. As Buckingham was a journalist, his vivid account of the incident was published first in the Boston Courier, picked up by other papers including The Times London and also reprinted in a book published in the same year, thus gaining wide currency. A more noted instance occurred during the 1852 evacuation of the Royal Navy troopship HMS Birkenhead. It is, however, most famously associated with the sinking of RMS Titanic in 1912. According to disaster evacuation expert Ed Galea, in modern-day evacuations people will usually "help the most vulnerable to leave the scene first, likely to be the injured, elderly and young children." In the Boy Scouts of Americas Sea Scouting program, "Women and children first" is considered "the motto of the sea".

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