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Geographic data and information

Geographic data and information are defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to Earth. It is also called geospatial data and information, georeferenced data and information, as well as geodata and geoinformation. Approximately 90% of government sourced data has a location component. Location information known by the many names mentioned here is stored in a geographic information system GIS. There are also many different types of geodata, including vector files, raster files, geographic databases, web files, and multi-temporal data.

3D city models

3D city models are digital models of urban areas that represent terrain surfaces, sites, buildings, vegetation, infrastructure and landscape elements in three-dimensional scale as well as related objects belonging to urban areas. Their components are described and represented by corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional spatial data and geo-referenced data. 3D city models support presentation, exploration, analysis, and management tasks in a large number of different application domains. In particular, 3D city models allow "for visually integrating heterogeneous geoinformation within a single framework and, therefore, create and manage complex urban information spaces."

Common Operational Datasets

Common Operational Datasets or CODs, are authoritative reference datasets needed to support operations and decision-making for all actors in a humanitarian response. CODs are best available datasets that ensure consistency and simplify the discovery and exchange of key data. The data is typically geo-spatially linked using a coordinate system and have unique geographic identification codes.


The Dimensionally Extended nine-Intersection Model is a topological model and a standard used to describe the spatial relations of two regions, in geometry, point-set topology, geospatial topology, and fields related to computer spatial analysis. The spatial relations expressed by the model are invariant to rotation, translation and scaling transformations. The matrix provides an approach for classifying geometry relations. Roughly speaking, with a true/false matrix domain, there are 512 possible 2D topologic relations, that can be grouped into binary classification schemes. The English language contains about 10 schemes relations, such as "intersects", "touches" and "equals". When testing two geometries against a scheme, the result is a spatial predicate named by the scheme. The model was developed by Clementini and others based on the seminal works of Egenhofer and others. It has been used as a basis for standards of queries and assertions in geographic information systems GIS and spatial databases.

Digital Earth

Digital Earth is the name given to a concept by former US vice president Al Gore in 1998, describing a virtual representation of the Earth that is georeferenced and connected to the worlds digital knowledge archives.

Geographic information retrieval

Geographic information retrieval or geographical information retrieval is the augmentation of information retrieval with geographic information. GIR aims at solving textual queries that include a geographic dimension, such as "What wars were fought in Greece?" or "restaurants in Beirut". It is common in GIR to separate the text indexing and analysis from the geographic indexing. Semantic similarity and word-sense disambiguation are important components of GIR. To identify place names, GIR often relies on gazetteers.

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