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Abstract space

Abstract space, in geography, is a hypothetical space characterized by equal and consistent properties; a geographic space that is completely homogeneous. All movement and activity would be equally easy or difficult in all directions and all locations within this space. This concept is useful for modeling or analyzing spatial activity and behavior by limiting or eliminating extraneous variables, such as terrain. For example, if researchers want to study the relationship between culture and trade, they don’t want their model to be overwhelmed or influenced by factors such as mountainous barriers and rivers because these would detract from the purpose of modeling how culture alone effects trade.

Alfoz (territory)

The geographical term alfoz was used in the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages to describe the rural territory, including villages and localities, belonging to a corresponding town, or villa in Spanish. The villa and its alfoz, under the authority of the town government, constituted what was called a Comunidad de Villa y Tierra, an autonomous political division within the kingdom. At the center of this community, the villa comprised an urban area and often a castle and a fortified wall. By the 12th century, the alfoces had fiscal, judicial and military functions. Furthermore, they lent themselves to the communal use of land for silvopastoral agriculture; however, in the year 1100, the Spanish kings began to allocate portions of land to the Roman Catholic Church and the nobility, an act that undermined the very purpose of the alfoz. The alfoz and its villa formed what would later be known as a municipality. The word alfoz comes from the Arabic al-hawz, meaning "rural district", and remains to this day an element of many place names in Spanish geography. Placenames in Spain are: Alfoz de Bricia Burgos Alfoz de Quintanadueñas Burgos Alfoz de Lloredo Cantabria Alfoz de Santa Gadea Burgos Alfoz Lugo

Alluvial fan

Alluvial fans are triangular-shaped deposits of water-transported material, often referred to as alluvium. They are an example of an unconsolidated sedimentary deposit and tend to be larger and more prominent in arid to semi-arid regions. These alluvial fans typically form in elevated or even mountainous regions where there is a rapid change in slope from a high to low gradient. The river or stream carrying the sediment flows at a relatively high velocity due to the high slope angle, which is why coarse material is able to remain in the flow. When the slope decreases rapidly into a relatively planar area or plateau, the stream loses the energy it needs to move its sediment. Deposition subsequently occurs and the sediment ultimately spreads out, creating an alluvial fan. Three primary zones occur within an alluvial fan which includes the proximal fan, medial fan, and the distal fan. Alluvial fans can exist on a wide spectrum of size scale. For example, alluvial fans can be on the order of only a few meters at the base and can be as large as 150 kilometers with a slope of 1.5-25 degrees. When numerous rivers/streams converge into a single plain, the fans can combine to form a continuous apron. In arid to semi-arid environments, this is referred to as a bajada and in humid climates the continuous fan apron is called a piedmont alluvial fan.

Alluvial plain

An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms. A floodplain is part of the process, being the smaller area over which the rivers flood at a particular period of time, whereas the alluvial plain is the larger area representing the region over which the floodplains have shifted over geological time. As the highlands erode due to weathering and water flow, the sediment from the hills is transported to the lower plain. Various creeks will carry the water further to a river, lake, bay, or ocean. As the sediments are deposited during flood conditions in the floodplain of a creek, the elevation of the floodplain will be raised. As this reduces the channel floodwater capacity, the creek will, over time, seek new, lower paths, forming a meander a curving sinuous path. The leftover higher locations, typically natural levees at the margins of the flood channel, will themselves be eroded by lateral stream erosion and from local rainfall and possibly wind transport if the climate is arid and does not support soil-holding grasses. These processes, over geologic time, will form the plain, a region with little relief local changes in elevation, yet with a constant but small slope. The Glossary of Landform and Geologic Terms, maintained by the United States National Cooperative Soil Survey, defines an "alluvial plain" as "a large assemblage of fluvial landforms that form low gradient, regional ramps along the flanks of mountains and extend great distances from their sources e.g., High Plains of North America" Use of "alluvial plain" as a general, informal term for a broad flood plain or a low-gradient delta is explicitly discouraged. The NCSS glossary instead suggests "flood plain".

Americas (terminology)

The Americas, also known as America, are lands of the Western Hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture. The Americas are recognised in the English-speaking world to comprise two separate continents: North America and South America. The Americas are also considered to comprise a single continent named America in parts of Europe, Latin America and some other areas.


An anatopism is something that is out of its proper place. The concept of anatopism is less widely familiar than that of anachronism, perhaps because much that is anatopic is also anachronistic. Yet the distinction is a valid one; not all that is anatopic is necessarily also anachronistic. The online Collins English Dictionary gives a synonym for "anatopism": anachorism from Greek: ana- + khōros, "place": "a geographical misplacement; something located in an incongruent position".



Potamal is a technical geographical term Limnology and hydrology of the lower sections of the stream or river. He describes the General habitat, stability, and ecology of biomass.

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